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Figure 2

Anisotropic expansion of a BEC along the direction of spin-orbit coupling (x axis) with the Raman coupling strength Ω=2.5ER, and various detunings of (a) δ=2.71ER, (b) δ=1.36ER, and (c) δ=0.54ER, from left to right, respectively. The first row shows the experimental integrated cross section of the condensate (dotted red curves) overlaid with results from the GPE simulation (solid black curves). The second row plots the location of the 20% and 80% quantiles with respect to the initial cloud center. The shaded regions present the GPE simulations, while the data points (and dotted lines to guide the eye) are the experimental measurements smoothed slightly by averaging the nearest 3 times. Error estimates are the standard deviation of 5 samples and are comparable with about twice the camera pixel resolution. The insets show the dispersion relation, with the region of negative effective mass lightly shaded. The bottom two rows show the evolution of the expanding condensate from the experiment (upper) and corresponding single-band axially symmetric 3D GPE simulations (lower). The dashed white lines depict the quantiles from the plot above. All experimental data presented here are from *in situ* imaging.

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Negative-Mass Hydrodynamics in a Spin-Orbit–Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensate

Title:

Negative-Mass Hydrodynamics in a Spin-Orbit\char21{}Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensate

Author:

M. A. Khamehchi et al.

Publication:

Physical Review Letters

Publisher:

American Physical Society

Date:

Apr 10, 2017