Theoretical Physics | Quantum Biology | Dark Matter Research | Energy Consulting | Creation of Hydrogen ATOM in the Higgs Field >> Vote for Nobel Prize

http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.5078

Gravitational Field Equations and Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Tian Ma, Shouhong Wang

(Submitted on 22 Jun 2012 (v1), last revised 11 Jul 2012 (this version, v2))

The main objective of this article is to derive a new set of gravitational field equations and to establish a new unified theory for dark energy and dark matter. The new gravitational field equations with scalar potential $\varphi$ are derived using the Einstein-Hilbert functional, and the scalar potential $\varphi$ is a natural outcome of the divergence-free constraint of the variational elements. Gravitation is now described by the Riemannian metric $g_{ij}$, the scalar potential $\varphi$ and their interactions, unified by the new gravitational field equations. Associated with the scalar potential $\varphi$ is the scalar potential energy density $\frac{c^4}{8\pi G} \Phi=\frac{c^4}{8\pi G} g^{ij}D_iD_j \varphi$, which represents a new type of energy caused by the non-uniform distribution of matter in the universe. The negative part of this potential energy density produces attraction, and the positive part produces repelling force. This potential energy density is conserved with mean zero: $\int_M \Phi dM=0$. The sum of this new potential energy density $\frac{c^4}{8\pi G} \Phi$ and the coupling energy between the energy-momentum tensor $T_{ij}$ and the scalar potential field $\varphi$ gives rise to a new unified theory for dark matter and dark energy: The negative part of this sum represents the dark matter, which produces attraction, and the positive part represents the dark energy, which drives the acceleration of expanding galaxies. In addition, the scalar curvature of space-time obeys $R=\frac{8\pi G}{c^4} T + \Phi$. Furthermore, the new field equations resolve a few difficulties encountered by the classical Einstein field equations.