Oliver Thewalt

    Oliver Thewalt

    Theoretical Physics | Quantum Biology | Dark Matter Research | Energy Consulting | Creation of Hydrogen ATOM in the Higgs Field >> Vote for Nobel Prize

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    Big Bang, Dark Matter and Cosmic 4He: From Hydrogen Burning to the quest for nucleosynthesis

    Dark Secrets About Big Bang Dark Matter

    TEDxHRCollege talk with Dr. Abhas Mitra
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
    Homi Bhabha National Institute

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqrEdpkYJdY

    Image Courtesy: Dr Abhas Mitra

    Dark Secrets About Big Bang Dark Matter | Dr. Abhas Mitra | TEDxHRCollege

     


    Contribution by Dr. Mitra:
    The Origin of Helium and the Other Light Elements
    by G. Burbidge and F. Hoyle
    Published 4 November 1998

    Abstract
    The energy released in the synthesis of cosmic 4He from hydrogen is almost exactly equal to the energy contained in the cosmic microwave background radiation. This result strongly suggests that the 4He was produced by hydrogen burning in stars and not in the early stages of a big bang. In addition, we show that there are good arguments for believing that the other light isotopes, D, 3He, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, 10B, and 11B, were also synthesized in processes involving stars. By combining these results with the earlier, much more detailed work of Burbidge et al. and of Cameron, we can finally conclude that all of the chemical elements were synthesized from hydrogen in stars over a time of about 10^11 yr.

    Commentary by Oliver Thewalt

    Interesting paper, I like Fred Hoyle's ideas very much.

    The Big Bang theory should no more be a yardstick for modern physics ..... the assertions are outdated, Weinbergs's particle zoo needs different conclusions:

    The coming into existence of matter and (higher) elements does not happen by fusion in stellar objects only, we know that higher elements than carbon and iron are coming into existence in huge quantities by collisions of neutron stars. I remind you of the gamma ray release due to the implosion happening during a SuperNova event: this Black Hole phenomenon which was theorized needs a more appropriate interpretation, we are dealing with a FTL world and the positive charge identity in such phenomena.

    The assertion of Hoyle and Burbidge is furthermore, that cosmic 4He originated by Hydrogen Burning in Dwarf Stars, with less probability of helium burning and 3 alpha process to happen. We know the steller synthesis goes basically from Hydrogen protons, which needs a quantum tunneling process, an event that is very unlikely to happen, p-p recation for fusion need roughly 1 Billion Earth Years to happen (in our Sun, a G-Star, about 1,4 x 10^10 Earth Years on average), the fusion process works due to the size of the stars, you need "pressure" or density, size and you have the Chandrasekhar limit, and the magnetic quantum flux ropes on the surface of a star --- in order to overcome the beryllium barrier, it needs energy and a quantum tunneling event as well, after hydrogen burning, helium burning is being theorized, 3 alpha process:

    for the endothermic process (simplified) 4He + 4He --> 8Be + a gamma quant release (!) y - 0,09178 MeV you need energy to happen, and you have the back reaction 8Be -> 4He + 4He + 0,09178 MeV,

    For the exothermic process to happen 8Be + 4He -> 12C + y + 7,367 MeV this needs a consecutive order of events that at least 3 alpha particles "collide" simultaneously, an event with a low a priori probability, as a result of a rather strong energy release by gamma quants ... so what about the distribution within probabilities to happen for those events and generating dwarf stars?

    Some key questions are: What about a photonic interplay, we have gamma quants at high energies and quantum tunneling, the Coulomb barrier and an assumed nuclear spallation process, theorizing kinetic energy to happen for cross sections to Lithium isotopes, for instance 7Li and 6Li, some noble gas isotopes and a CNO process for Carbon, this should take into account the question about spallation physics: we can look upon nuclear physics processes on shell or off shell - furthermore the picture about processing reactions is incomplete concerning the quantum and quark level.

     

    Spallation Reaction Physics

    Quote "Recently, however, Fuller &
    Shi (1997) have argued that antineutrinos -Ve can give rise to -Ve + p ----> n +   +e_v
    deuterons through, followed by n(p, y)D-reactions in the collapse of supermassive stars (M ≥ 5 x 10^4
    M,) in the early history of galaxies. This mechanism may be
    important, but in view of the fact that the 3He/H and D/H ratios 
    are very similar, and because we believe that the 3He is likely 
    to be produced by low-mass stars, we believe that the most
    likely source of the cosmic deuterium is the dwarf stars." Unquote


      The origin of 3He Citation by F. Hoyle G. Burbidge1998 Deuterium and 3He formation in Dwarf and low mass Stars 

    You need an antineutrino for this to happen, but the world view by antineutrinos is not taking into account what happens due to charge conjugation and particle pair production,


    Michael Balmer,

    Quote: Let us accept the assertion of hydrogen as the most abundant element in the unverse,would not that make electrons and protons the most abundant particles in the universe,you would think so on the basis of the constitutes of hydrogen and the mathematics,but this would be an incorrect assumption,that would be the neutron but only by subscribing to the hypothesis of neutron decay that states in approximately 15-20 minutes a neutron would decay into an electron, proton and a neutrino, ...

    Note: I did not say antineutrino,this is because there can be no such thing as one,no neutral (or so called) particle can have an antiparticle since the anti would be the opposing sign of the particle which is the constituates of hydrogen and although it is stilled maintained a decayed neutron is not hydrogen because of the mathemtics it is the only answer to the production of hydrogen in free space,so do we continue to let the math fool us and stay in the dark about something so simple and was postulate and accepted at a time when they were only conjecture and not captured for study and who said it was an antineutrino anyway,how was that determination made." Unquote


    Hydrogen, by Michael Balmer

    Furthermore, our view on the table of periodoc elements should be revised: Americanium and other "higher" elements are close to a quantum barrier for the positive charge identity, this is why I remind the quest for mass defect! Jonathan Vos Post Stability of matter?!

    Fred Hoyle has made some remarkable points about cosmic helium and the abundance of various hydrogen isotopes or isomers.

    Look up Spin Ice Hydrogen Isomer, Abhas, CMB Interpretation by Red Shift Models are incomplete: we have high energy photons and gamma ray quants or gamma radiation as well, and various forms of decay and radiation, for instance are galactic or interstellar red shift models doubtful, when in, Einstein's world view space can expand at any speed? This needs revision as well, stellar, primordial and cosmic nucleosynthesis.

    Some background reading:

    https://journals.aps.org/rmp/abstract/10.1103/RevModPhys.83.195

    http://ojs.ujf.cas.cz/~krasa/ZNTT/SpallationReactions-text.pdf

    1st Chapter: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1503/1503.08981.pdf

    https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/48120/fac_SingerS_PhysicalReviewLetters_2005_94_13.pdf

    Your comments are very welcome: Luboš Motl, Asok K Sen, Lawrence Krauss

    In order to get a better understanding for #Dark #Matter, we need at first to revise some assertions.

    Further Reading: http://www.biophys.ru/archive/h2o-00011.pdf

    https://phys.org/news/2016-07-key-molecular-evolution-space.html

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_isomers_of_hydrogen


    https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10155230980256473


    Image Courtesy: Dr Abhas Mitra https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqrEdpkYJdY #dark #matter #big #bang

     

    Further Reading:

    Why nuclear fission is about string vacua folding and topological bonding within a phase transition