Oliver Thewalt

    Oliver Thewalt

    Theoretical Physics | Quantum Biology | Dark Matter Research | Energy Consulting | Creation of Hydrogen ATOM in the Higgs Field >> Vote for Nobel Prize

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    Expansion of the Universe or the imaginary photon - space boundary

    The universe is not expanding - the imaginary photon-space boundary is "expanding"



    This is why we do not observe an anti-photon: there is no anti-photon for states in Existence


    Let' s take an example: the current theory says this:


    "Photons always move at the speed of light in a vacuum. When a photon climbs up out of a gravity well, its velocity is unchanged, but its energy decreases, and so it exhibits gravitational red shift."


    Yes, but 1. What is energy (hint: matter -antimatter (planckian set-off to the absolute Zero or the the speed of light threshold)


    2. There is no transport through space but within (quarks to space)


    3. There is no Euclidian plane at all -no length, width or height -


    4. There are no symmetries/asymmetries - it is more like a fractal geometric generator of a (Planckian) density matrix ("dimension")


    5. The universe has no inner or outer, no center or border, there is even no UNIverse as such - it cannot expand


    6. Our observations are misleading us towards an appropriate interpretation of the unobservable universe


    7. I know that this cannot be understood due to current textbook physics which is still mainly derived by a 19th century world view, but there is for instance no time as such


    8. We need the quantum aspect, yes, but what we need even more is the notion of existence and the Black Hole or antimatter identity -

    (world view: the "quantum vacuum" as existence "generator" via mass or better stated the majorana like di-photon BH quasi quantum energy states (BH <-> particle), like an imprint for constraints of existence (Riemann Zeta zero value distribution (photonic! (neutrino/Dirac's quantum foam))


    9. Then you may have an idea about what is existent (what are quantum energy states?) and why there cannot be cause and effect in the real world when you observe it from the quantum world (quantum measurement), the attribution of cause and effect would not be unambiguous


    10. you may read some introductory posts


    a) Special and General Relativity are meeting the quanta

    b) Michael Balmer's notes: Time until Matter


    10. Think in terms of "quantum thresholds" instead of "Dirichlet Boundaries".

    11. Contemporary physics says this:



     via Jonathan vos Post, thanks!

    There are at least 3 DIFFERENT types of Red Shift:

    A redshift is a shift in the frequency of a photon toward lower energy, or longer wavelength. The redshift is defined as the change in the wavelength of the light divided by the rest wavelength of the light, as


    z = (Observed wavelength - Rest wavelength)/(Rest wavelength)


    Note that postive values of z correspond to increased wavelengths (redshifts).


    Different types of redshifts have different causes.


    (1) The Doppler Redshift results from the relative motion of the light emitting object and the observer. If the source of light is moving away from you then the wavelength of the light is stretched out, i.e., the light is shifted towards the red. These effects, individually called the blueshift, and the redshift are together known as doppler shifts. The shift in the wavelength is given by a simple formula


    (Observed wavelength - Rest wavelength)/(Rest wavelength) = (v/c)


    so long as the velocity v is much less than the speed of light. A relativistic doppler formula is required when velocity is comparable to the speed of light.


    (2) The Cosmological Redshift is a redshift caused by the expansion of space. The wavelength of light increases as it traverses the expanding universe between its point of emission and its point of detection by the same amount that space has expanded during the crossing time.


    (3) The Gravitational Redshift is a shift in the frequency of a photon to lower energy as it climbs out of a gravitational field."




    But red shift is generally speaking a matter of energy scaling and EM-fields - when time is duration and motion, energy scaling for instance by the "frequency" of a Caesium atom (neutrino, charge indentity, oscillation, spin) -


    ..........The foundation of Pauli's exclusion principle is based on the fact that positrons are not occupying the same space as electrons - by a different spin or oscillation/charge respectively 


    Or e.g. molecular hydrogen



    Richard Feynman said that:

    "no-one has ever been able to define the difference between interference and diffraction satisfactorily. It is just a question of usage, and there is no specific, important physical difference between them."


    Lyman Series (Wikipedia Excerpt) 

    In physics and chemistry, the Lyman series is the series of transitions and resulting ultraviolet emission lines of the hydrogen atom as an electron goes from n ≥ 2 to n = 1 (where n is the principal quantum number referring to the energy level of the electron). The transitions are named sequentially by Greek letters: from n = 2 to n = 1 is called Lyman-alpha, 3 to 1 is Lyman-beta, 4 to 1 is Lyman-gamma, etc. The series is named after its discoverer, Theodore Lyman.

    Balmer Series (Wikipedia Excerpt)

    The Balmer series is particularly useful in astronomy because the Balmer lines appear in numerous stellar objects due to the abundance of hydrogen in the universe, and therefore are commonly seen and relatively strong compared to lines from other elements.

    The spectral classification of stars, which is primarily a determination of surface temperature, is based on the relative strength of spectral lines, and the Balmer series in particular are very important. Other characteristics of a star can be determined by close analysis of its spectrum include surface gravity (related to physical size) and composition.

    Because the Balmer lines are commonly seen in the spectra of various objects, they are often used to determine radial velocities due to doppler shifting of the Balmer lines. This has important uses all over astronomy, from detecting binary stars, exoplanets, compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes (by the motion of hydrogen in accretion disks around them), identifying groups of objects with similar motions and presumably origins (moving groups, star clusters, galaxy clusters, and debris from collisions), determining distances (actually redshifts) of galaxies or quasars, and identifying unfamiliar objects by analysis of their spectrum.

    Balmer lines can appear as absorption or emission lines in a spectrum, depending on the nature of the object observed. In stars, the Balmer lines are usually seen in absorption, and they are "strongest" in stars with a surface temperature of about 10,000 kelvin (spectral type A). In the spectra of most spiral and irregular galaxies, AGNs, H II regions and planetary nebulae, the Balmer lines are emission lines.

    In stellar spectra, the H-epsilon line (transition 7-2) is often mixed in with another absorption line caused by ionized calcium known by astronomers as "H" (the original designation given by Fraunhofer). That is, H-epsilon's wavelength is quite close to CaH at 396.847 nm, and cannot be resolved in low resolution spectra. The H-zeta line (transition 8-2) is similarly mixed in with a neutral helium line seen in hot stars.

    Rydberg Constant, Wikipedia Excerpt

    The Rydberg constant, symbol R∞ or RH, named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, is a physical constant relating to atomic spectra, in the science of spectroscopy. The constant first arose as an empirical fitting parameter in the Rydberg formula for the hydrogen spectral series, but Niels Bohr later showed that its value could be calculated from more fundamental constants, explaining the relationship via his "Bohr model". As of 2012, R∞ is the most accurately measured fundamental physical constant.

    The Rydberg constant represents the limiting value of the highest wavenumber (the inverse wavelength) of any photon that can be emitted from the hydrogen atom, or, alternatively, the wavenumber of the lowest-energy photon capable of ionizing the hydrogen atom from its ground state. The spectrum of hydrogen can be expressed simply in terms of the Rydberg constant, using the Rydberg formula.

    Huygens' principle can be seen as a consequence of the isotropy of space - all directions in space are equal. Any disturbance created in a sufficiently small region of isotropic space (or in an isotropic medium) propagates from that region in all radial directions. The waves created by this disturbance, in turn, create disturbances in other regions, and so on. The superposition of all the waves results in the observed pattern of wave propagation.


    Isotropy of space is fundamental to quantum electrodynamics (QED) where the wave function of any object propagates along all available unobstructed paths. When integrated along all possible paths, with a phase factor which is proportional to the path length, the interference of the wave-functions correctly predicts observable phenomena.




    SDSS-BOSS-illustration, light from distant quasars

    Light from distant quasars (red dots at left) is partially absorbed as it passes through clouds of hydrogen gas. A “forest” of hydrogen absorption lines in an individual quasar’s spectrum (inset) pinpoints denser clumps of gas along the line of sight, and the spectra are collected by the telescope’s spectrograph (square at right). The accessible redshift range corresponds on average to about 10 billion years ago. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey had previously collected spectra from some quasars in this range, by measuring 10 times as many per square degree of sky BOSS can reconstruct a three-dimensional map of the otherwise invisible gas, revealing the large-scale structure of the early universe.


    Image Credit: Zosia Rostomian, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Nic Ross, BOSS Lyman-alpha team, Berkeley Lab; and Springel et al, Virgo Consortium and Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

     Quasars Unveil New Era in the Expansion History of the Universe

    "Because of the regularity of those ancient waves, there’s a slightly increased probability that any two galaxies today will be separated by about 500 million light-years, rather than 400 million or 600 million,” says Daniel Eisenstein of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, director of SDSS-III and a pioneer in baryon oscillation surveys for nearly a decade. In a graph of the number of galaxy pairs by separation distance, that magic number of 500 million light years shows up as a peak, so astronomers often speak of the “peak separation” between galaxies. The distance that corresponds to this peak depends on the amount of dark energy in the Universe. But measuring the peak separation between galaxies depends critically on having the right distances to the galaxies in the first place.

    That’s where BOSS comes in. “We’ve detected the peak separation more clearly than ever before,” says Nikhil Padmanabhan of Yale University, who along with Percival co-chairs the BOSS team’s galaxy clustering group. “These measurements allow us to determine the contents of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy.

    In addition to providing highly accurate distance measurements, the BOSS data also enable a stringent new test of General Relativity, explains Beth Reid, a NASA Hubble Fellow at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. “Since gravity attracts, galaxies at the edges of galaxy clusters fall in toward the centres of the clusters,” Reid says. “General Relativity predicts just how fast they should be falling. If our understanding of General Relativity is incomplete, we should be able to tell from the shapes we see in BOSS’s maps near known galaxy clusters.

    Reid led the analysis of these “redshift space distortions” in BOSS. After accounting for the effects of dark energy, Reid’s team found that the rate at which galaxies fall into clusters is consistent with Einstein’s predictions. “We already knew that the predictions of General Relativity are extremely accurate for distances within the solar system,” says Reid, “and now we can say that they are accurate for distances of 100 million light-years.”



    Quasars Unveil New Era in the Expansion History of the Universe


    annesastronomynews dot com / the-beginning-of-dark-energy/

    arxiv dot org/ abs/1211.2616

    en . wikipedia  dot org/ wiki/Lyman_series

    en . wikipedia dot org / wiki/Lyman_alpha_forest

    en . wikipediad dot org / wiki/Redshift

    en . wikipedia  dot org/ wiki/Rydberg_equation

    en . wikipedia  dot org / wiki/Balmer%27s_formula

    en . wikipedia dot org /wiki/Baryon_acoustic_oscillations

    en . wikipedia  dot org /wiki/Liénard–Wiechert_potential

    Huygens–Fresnel principle

    Wave diffraction in the manner of Huygens and Fresnel

    The Huygens–Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.

    en . wikipedia dot org / wik i/ Huygens%E2%80%93Fresnel_principle

    en . wikipedia dot org / wiki/Gunn-Peterson_trough

    en . wikipedia  dot org/ wiki/Wouthuysen-Field_coupling

    imagine . gsfc  dot nasa . gov /…/satellites/jwst_darkages.html

    en . wikipedia  dot org / wiki/Hydrogen_spectral_series

    en . wikipedia dot org / wiki/Initial_mass_function

    arxiv dot org /abs/astro-ph/0302213

    en . wikipedia  dot org / wiki/Reionization



    There are several reasons why pure plasma physics or explanations by doppler red shift are not satisfactorily explaining the observations - if Dark Matter cannot be explained by WIMPs or Axions, and it cannot!


    ISO detects signal from dark matter in a galaxy similar to the Milky Way


    17 Aug 1999

    A true colour photograph of the edge-on Spiral galaxy NGC 891 (field of view is 6.7 x 6.7 arcminutes). The dark band running through the center of the disk is caused by the effect of large dust clouds in this galaxy. At 8 positions in this disk, even beyond the field of this photo, the ISO-SWS has detected the signal from molecular hydrogen gas (H2). The graphical inset shows the signal of the H2 lines at 17.0 and 28.2 micrometer wavelength, detected at the outermost position of the survey, at a distance 12 kilo parsec (37000 light-years) from the center, a position where other observations of lines of molecules, like the CO molecule, are trailing into the noise. From the ratio of the signal strength of these lines a temperature of the gas of about 80K is derived.

    ISO-SWS data from Valentijn and van der Werf / SRON

    Optical photograph of NGC 891: Blair Savage, Chris Howk (U. Wisconsin)/N.A.Sharp (NOAO)/AURA/NSF


    Galaxies are known to have much more matter than telescopes can currently see. Up to 90% of the total mass of the galaxies is simply missing: it has to be there, astronomers know, but it remains undetected. Is this so-called 'dark matter' made up of exotic, virtually undetectable particles, or is it merely ordinary matter hidden to instruments for some reason? A new result obtained by a Dutch team with the European Space Agency's infrared space telescope, ISO, favours the last idea.


    They have detected in the disk of a galaxy the molecule of hydrogen, considered an important component of the dark matter if it is of the normal, ordinary type. Moreover, the molecular hydrogen is found precisely in the amount needed to fill the missing-mass gap.


    "Our results give a much stronger footing for the 'ordinary matter' simple solution of the dark matter problem, in the form of massive clouds in the disks of galaxies", says the main author of the finding Edwin A. Valentijn, from the Kapteyn Institute in Groningen (The Netherlands).

    One of the findings helping to build the 'normal matter' explanation was obtained a decade ago by Valentijn himself. In 1989 he measured the brightness of 2,500 spiral galaxies, to determine whether these objects were transparent or opaque. Until then, most astronomers had assumed that spiral galaxies were basically transparent, this meaning that most light coming from the normal matter present would be freely emitted --thus, the matter would be bright. On the contrary, Valentijn found that spiral galaxies are heavily obscured by their own interstellar dust. Could the dark matter, or at least part of it, simply be the gas frequently associated with this interstellar dust?

    "The surprise is that we detect molecular hydrogen everywhere where we looked! Our team was the only one who thought the measurement was feasible, as no other ISO-observations of this kind were programmed", Valentijn says.