Oliver Thewalt

    Oliver Thewalt

    Theoretical Physics | Quantum Biology | Dark Matter Research | Energy Consulting | Creation of Hydrogen ATOM in the Higgs Field >> Vote for Nobel Prize

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    Michael Balmer's Notes: Dark Energy

    by Michael Balmer, Notes at Facebook

    Excerpt from Wikipedia about Dark Energy

    In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy which permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe.[1] Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, on a mass–energy equivalence basis, the observable universe contains 26.8% dark matter, 68.3% dark energy (for a total of 95.1%) and 4.9% ordinary matter.[2][3][4][5] Again on a mass–energy equivalence basis, the density of dark energy (6.91 × 10−27 kg/m3) is very low: in the solar system, it is estimated only 6 tons of dark energy would be found within the radius of Pluto's orbit. However, it comes to dominate the mass–energy of the universe because it is uniform across space.[6]

    Two proposed forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously,[7] and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density can vary in time and space. Contributions from scalar fields that are constant in space are usually also included in the cosmological constant. The cosmological constant can be formulated to be equivalent to vacuum energy. Scalar fields that do change in space can be difficult to distinguish from a cosmological constant because the change may be extremely slow.

    High-precision measurements of the expansion of the universe are required to understand how the expansion rate changes over time. In general relativity, the evolution of the expansion rate is parameterized by the cosmologicalequation of state (the relationship between temperature, pressure, and combined matter, energy, and vacuum energy density for any region of space). Measuring the equation of state for dark energy is one of the biggest efforts in observational cosmology today.

    Adding the cosmological constant to cosmology's standard FLRW metric leads to the Lambda-CDM model, which has been referred to as the "standard model" of cosmology because of its precise agreement with observations. Dark energy has been used as a crucial ingredient in a recent attempt to formulate a cyclic model for the universe.[8]



    CREDIT :Wikipedia



                 I began with this insert because frankly, it saves on the typing,now the concept of dark energy has been around for a number of years,the simplest explanation was given in 1917 as the Cosmological Constant..(Quintessence or Moduli ),the CC proposed by Albert Einstein and later he retracted calling it his greatest blunder,but why would he have done that,well Hubble...Hubble showed that the universe was actually expanding,but the confusing part with this is Einstein saw the Cosomological Constant a detriment to his  theory of Gravity,where gravity was the cause of the slowing of the universe,the Cosmological Constant would have shown the expansion and the acceleration,later to be adopted by later cosmologist and astrophysicist,right into the 90's with inflatioinist Alan Guth.


                 The term dark energy was given by Michael Turner in 1998 as a reflective term of the 1930's by Fritz Zwicky.....Dark Matter,so we ask...what is dark energy?to get a full answer to that we must ask, what is energy?in physics it is the ability of the system to perform work,actually the term is suggestive a descripton,not of substance in the define of logic,we can say full of or have no energy in the course of human endeavors,we can say power,a product of fuels,there is potential and kinetic (E=mc^2),now,what is dark energy and why is it dark?Einstein told us in 1917,it is the Vacuum of space...the density and it permeates all of the universe,some liken it to a fluid,some say a negative pressure of space which causes the expansion by the repulsive force on matter,so why is it dark?it isn't dark..this term coined in 1998 was just another way of saying Cosmological Constant which is another way of saying vacuum density,the interesting part of the hypothesis is that it doesn't clump together like matter and it may not at all and as i said as a fluid filling the void between fields of matter as a super fluid would or a containers volume...ahh Boltzman would be proud,the term dark energy taking as a companion to dark matter and in it's original define as undetectable has been "upgraded" to mean ...we don't know..i think the original sounds better,so as for dark energy..we don't know is why it is dark,but we do know what it is,in our complexity and the need to be complex have adopted or to say deleted ourselves from 1917.


                 So,what is dark energy?dark energy by it's own definition does not exist,but the term is useful so we will keep it,the problem with understanding it,or to say determining what it is...is difficult because it is not energy,but then again neither is ordinary energy,ordinary energy?yes it is a term describing the other form of matter,ordinary or normal,remember the stats :68.3 dark energy,26.8 dark matter and 4.9 for ordinary matter..?where does the ordinary/normal energy fall on this chart?why do i make a point of this?fallacy?no...not really,more to point out that without all the variables accounted for, no theory is valid,no assertion can be valued and no hypothesis has an ending,let's get back to the assertion energy is not energy,energy does not repulse or attract,it cannot be neutral in it's own premise,what we mistakingly and imprinted on our cognizant abilities is, as with gravity a mystical,magical phenomena,the reason so much is given to the amount of dark energy in the universe is nothing more than numbers,mathematics,someones assertion that to move cosmological portions of matter it must be.....bigger,do we really know the size of the universe to determine how much of the percentage is given to whom,no of course not,it has been determined approximently only 9 tons of the stuff is in the milky way,hmmm i assume that is based of the volume of space the galaxy occupies because it surely could not be weighed,but it would make sense being in a matter field,that there would be a lesser amount not that there is actually 9 tons.


                The biggest problem with determining what dark energy must be is, we are looking at it as energy and it is not energy,it has the energy to do what it is postulated to do,but it is not energy,you see Einstein's biggest blunder wasn't the Cosmological Constant,it was the term of "energy" he used,where in the application it was used,where he used it to describe, was mistaken for an  Affect, when it, as with gravity is an Effect.


                What is dark energy?What is energy?we can answer this easy enough because we have always known the answer,how do we measure energy?in Amps,Volts,Farads,Joules,Newtons,Coulombs etc,etc,with one simple word and without it, nothing can exist..... CHARGE.


                 you may give your own hypothesis or you may challenge these assertions.